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sudo is a tool to execute commands with different permissions and rights. A useful tool on a standalone machine, but in the network, everything is managed centrally by the computer group, so there are no reasons to get elevated privileges through commands like this.
So, why do we document it here? Mostly to point people to this page when they use the
sudo command anyway.
HOWTOfound on the internet. Possible pitfalls:
HOWTOis for a different type of Linux. Anything containing
apt-getwill not work on Fedora / RedHat anyway, since apt is the Debian/Ubuntu package manager. Package names are probably also different. (this is the most frequently encountered case in our
HOWTOmay be ancient, eg asking to upgrade the
gcccompiler to version 3.x, whereas we have version 5.3 at the moment, so such a misplaced downgrade might actually break big parts of the system, should you have succeeded.
sudoattempt is blocked.
ctrl-alt-F2to switch to a text screen, followed by
executepermission on a newly created script). Anything downloaded from the internet will not have execute permission even if it is a valid program.
chmod +xis your tool here, no sudo required. Anything copied from cdrom/dvd has only read permission, because it came from read-only media.
chmod +wwill make sure you can edit it.
In general, if you encounter a situation where you think
sudo is the answer, check this list first and if you still think something needs to be done using elevated privileges, contact the helpdesk.
If you want to install a software package, it often has a system-wide location as default (
/opt, most of the time). But in most cases, an install location can be specified.
configurescripts often have a
–prefixoption to specify the install location. Check
INSTALLnotes that come with the package, and
configure –helpoften lists supported options too.
setup.py. When running the
installphase, you can also specify a
–prefixlocation, or use
–userto install in a location in your home directory.
easy_installwill also work if you give it a
Makefileoften has a
installtarget or some other location where you can set the destination. No real standards here, you may have to read the documentation and/or the makefile.
In our setup, USB disks are normally mounted automatically when inserted, if you are logged in on the system locally. So it will not work when you are only logged in from your laptop; there is no way to distinguish a login from a laptop on the same desk, from a login from a laptop at the other side of the world, and you can imagine that there will be problems if someone logged in remotely can mount or unmount and access your usb disk without your knowledge. Sometimes this fails. Some common reasons:
sudowill help you there, except when you want to reformat the disk.