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linux:sudo [2016/04/05 09:51]
jansen created
linux:sudo [2017/06/28 09:37] (current)
jansen [Software installation tips]
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 So, why do we document it here? Mostly to point people to this page when they use the ''​sudo''​ command anyway. So, why do we document it here? Mostly to point people to this page when they use the ''​sudo''​ command anyway.
  
-Why do people try to use ''​sudo''?​+===== Why do people try to use ''​sudo''? ​===== 
   - Cut and paste from a ''​HOWTO''​ found on the internet. Possible pitfalls:   - Cut and paste from a ''​HOWTO''​ found on the internet. Possible pitfalls:
     - the ''​HOWTO''​ is for a different type of Linux. Anything containing ''​apt-get''​ will not work on Fedora / RedHat anyway, since apt is the Debian/​Ubuntu package manager. Package names are probably also different. (this is the most frequently encountered case in our ''​sudo''​ logs)     - the ''​HOWTO''​ is for a different type of Linux. Anything containing ''​apt-get''​ will not work on Fedora / RedHat anyway, since apt is the Debian/​Ubuntu package manager. Package names are probably also different. (this is the most frequently encountered case in our ''​sudo''​ logs)
-    - the software is already installed. Really, we try to do a good job to install everything needed for computations in astronomy, physics and mathematics. Including (most frequent case) all prerequisites for running [[http://​www.amusecode.org|AMUSE]] or [[http://​casa.nrao.edu|CASA]]. So try running your programs before trying to install them+    ​- the ''​HOWTO''​ may be ancient, eg asking to upgrade the ''​gcc''​ compiler to version 3.x, whereas we have version 5.3 at the moment, so such a misplaced downgrade might actually break big parts of the system, should you have succeeded. 
 +    ​- the software is already installed. Really, we try to do a good job to install everything needed for computations in astronomy, physics and mathematics. Including (most frequent case) all prerequisites for running ​MPI applications (OpenMPI and MPICH); ​[[http://​www.amusecode.org|AMUSE]] or [[http://​casa.nrao.edu|CASA]]. So try running your programs before trying to install them, or look here in our wiki for documentation on what is already installed.
     - many install notes explain how to install a package system-wide,​ even if there are ways to install it just for yourself, which is probably what you want anyway (see below for tips and details)     - many install notes explain how to install a package system-wide,​ even if there are ways to install it just for yourself, which is probably what you want anyway (see below for tips and details)
-  - Mistaken identity or location (e.g. assuming you are in a terminal on your laptop, whereas you are actually logged in to our workstations). No harm doen, and here it is a very good thing that your ''​sudo''​ attempt is blocked.+  - Mistaken identity or location (e.g. assuming you are in a terminal on your laptop, whereas you are actually logged in to our workstations). No harm done, and here it is a very good thing that your ''​sudo''​ attempt is blocked.
   - Doing something that you can already do without elevated privileges:   - Doing something that you can already do without elevated privileges:
     - mounting usb disks should work when you are logged in on the console (unless, see below)     - mounting usb disks should work when you are logged in on the console (unless, see below)
     - rebooting a desktop is possible from the menu or the login screen without password. or if that fails: ''​ctrl-alt-F2''​ to switch to a text screen, followed by ''​ctrl-alt-delete''​ to reboot     - rebooting a desktop is possible from the menu or the login screen without password. or if that fails: ''​ctrl-alt-F2''​ to switch to a text screen, followed by ''​ctrl-alt-delete''​ to reboot
-    - if anything related to your own files gives a permission problem, there may be a problem (e.g. disk became read-only), or it is a file permission you can fix yourself (e.g. setting ''​execute''​ permission on a newly created script). Anything downloaded from the internet will not have excute ​permission even if it is a valid program. ''​chmod +x''​ is your tool here, no sudo required. Anything copied from cdrom/dvd has only read permission, because it came from read-only media. ''​chmod +w''​ will make sure you can edit it.+    - if anything related to your own files gives a permission problem, there may be a problem (e.g. disk became read-only), or it is a file permission you can fix yourself (e.g. setting ''​execute''​ permission on a newly created script). Anything downloaded from the internet will not have execute ​permission even if it is a valid program. ''​chmod +x''​ is your tool here, no sudo required. Anything copied from cdrom/dvd has only read permission, because it came from read-only media. ''​chmod +w''​ will make sure you can edit it.
  
 In general, if you encounter a situation where you think ''​sudo''​ is the answer, check this list first and if you still think something needs to be done using elevated privileges, contact the [[https://​helpdesk.strw.leidenuniv.nl|helpdesk]]. In general, if you encounter a situation where you think ''​sudo''​ is the answer, check this list first and if you still think something needs to be done using elevated privileges, contact the [[https://​helpdesk.strw.leidenuniv.nl|helpdesk]].
  
----+----
  
 ===== Software installation tips ===== ===== Software installation tips =====
 If you want to install a software package, it often has a system-wide location as default (''/​usr'',​ ''/​usr/​local''​ or ''/​opt'',​ most of the time). But in most cases, an install location can be specified. If you want to install a software package, it often has a system-wide location as default (''/​usr'',​ ''/​usr/​local''​ or ''/​opt'',​ most of the time). But in most cases, an install location can be specified.
-  * ''​configure''​ scripts often have a ''​--prefix''​ option to specify the install location. Check ''​INSTALL''​ notes that come with the package, and ''​configure --help''​ often lists supported options too. +  * ''​configure''​ scripts often have a ''​%%--%%prefix''​ option to specify the install location. Check ''​INSTALL''​ notes that come with the package, and ''​configure ​%%--%%help''​ often lists supported options too. 
-  * Python source packages often come with a ''​setup.py''​. When running the ''​install''​ phase, you can also specify a ''​--prefix''​ location, or use ''​--user''​ to install in a location in your home directory. +  * Python source packages often come with a ''​setup.py''​. When running the ''​install''​ phase, you can also specify a ''​--prefix''​ location, or use ''​%%--%%user''​ to install in a location in your home directory. 
-  * Installing python packages using ''​pip''​ or ''​easy_install'​ will also work if you give it a ''​--prefix''​ or ''​--user''​ option+  * Installing python packages using ''​pip''​ or ''​easy_install'' will also work if you give it a ''​%%--%%prefix''​ or ''​%%--%%user''​ option
   * a package that comes with a ''​Makefile''​ often has a ''​install''​ target or some other location where you can set the destination. No real standards here, you may have to read the documentation and/or the makefile.   * a package that comes with a ''​Makefile''​ often has a ''​install''​ target or some other location where you can set the destination. No real standards here, you may have to read the documentation and/or the makefile.
  
linux/sudo.1459849917.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/04/05 09:51 by jansen